As I noted before, cell therapy developers should forget about use of animal-derived serum in cell culture. We are done with it. I was searching some references, precisely for autologous cells and adult stem cells. Luckily I came across the review by Ian Copland where I found the answer:
Since FBS is xenogenic, human cells exposed to it have the potential to become immunogenic.
There are two studies showed that syngenic lymphocytes and autologous dendritic cells cultured in FBS (and FCS) could cause serious adverse reactions in patients:
- Presence of IgE antibodies to bovine serum albumin in a patient developing anaphylaxis after vaccination with human peptide-pulsed dendritic cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2000; 49(3):152–156
- Development of antibodies to fetal calf serum with Arthus-like reactions in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients given syngeneic lymphocyte infusions. Blood 1997; 89(3):776–779
Spees et al. showed that human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) could internalize FBS in culture and carry up to 30 mg of xenoantigen:
Internalized antigens must be removed to prepare hypoimmunogenic mesenchymal stem cells for cell and gene therapy. Mol Ther 9(5):747–756
Two groups demonstrated that human bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSC cultured with FBS could express N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) xenoantigen. Because human serum naturally contains antibody against Neu5Gc, these MSC will trigger immune response and get eliminated:
- N-glycolylneuraminic acid xenoantigen contamination of human embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells is substantially reversible. Stem Cells. 2007; 25(1):197-202
- Reduction of N-glycolylneuraminic acid xenoantigen on human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells leads to safer and more useful cell sources for various stem cell therapies . Tissue Eng Part A. 2010; 16(4):1143-55
I’d finish by citation from Ian Copland’s review:
Consequently, transplanted MSCs could release these xenoantigens in vivo to produce a humoral response and potentially present xenoantigens in the context of MHC class I or class II evoking a cellular response. Furthermore, even if these xenoantigens are not initially presented to the exterior, it is possible that during phagocytic processing of apoptotic transplanted somatic cells xenoantigen could enter the MHC class I and MHC class II antigen presentation pathways evoking an indirect increase in immunogenicity to the remaining transplanted cells [135, 149]. As a result, even autologous transplanted MSCs have the potential to be rapidly rejected with the host developing memory cells and natural antibodies which would prevent subsequent use of any cellular therapy where FBS xenoantigens are present.